Climate change and associated changes in streamflow may alter riparian habitats substantially in coming decades. Riparian restoration provides opportunities to respond proactively to projected climate change effects, increase riparian ecosystem resilience to climate change, and simultaneously address effects of both climate change and other human disturbances. However, climate change may alter which restoration methods are most effective and which restoration goals can be achieved. Incorporating climate change into riparian restoration planning and design is critical to long-term restoration of desired community composition and ecosystem services.
In this review, we discuss and provide examples of how climate change might be incorporated into restoration planning at the key stages of assessing the project context, establishing restoration goals and design criteria, evaluating design alternatives, and monitoring restoration outcomes. Restoration planners have access to numerous tools to predict future climate, streamflow, and riparian ecology at restoration sites. Planners can use those predictions to assess which species or ecosystem services will be most vulnerable under future conditions, and which sites will be most suitable for restoration. To accommodate future climate and streamflow change, planners may need to adjust methods for planting, invasive species control, channel and floodplain reconstruction, and water management. Given the considerable uncertainty in future climate and streamflow projections, riparian ecological responses, and effects on restoration outcomes, planners will need to consider multiple potential future scenarios, implement a variety of restoration methods, design projects with flexibility to adjust to future conditions, and plan to respond adaptively to unexpected change.
Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands: A synthesis of methylmercury production, hydrologic export, and bioaccumulation from an integrated field study
Windham-Myers, L., J.A. Fleck, J.T. Ackerman, M. Marvin-DiPasquale, C.A. Stricker, W.A. Heim, P.A.M. Bachand, C.A. Eagles-Smith, G. Gill, M. Stephenson, and C.N. Alpers
After the removal of two large, long‑standing dams on the Elwha River, Washington, the additional load of sediment and wood is expected to affect the hydrology of the lower river, its estuary, and the alluvial aquifer underlying the surrounding flood plain. To better understand the surface-water and groundwater characteristics of the river and estuary before dam removal, several hydrologic data sets were collected and analyzed. An experiment using a dye tracer characterized transient storage, and it was determined that the low-flow channel of the lower Elwha River was relatively simple; 1–6 percent of the median travel time of dye was attributed to transient-storage processes...
Hydrologic needs: The effects of altered hydrology on the Everglades [Chapter 2]
Sklar, F. C. McVoy, R. Van Zee, D. Gawlik, D. Swift, W. Park, C. Fitz, Y. Wu, D. Rudnick, T. Fontaine, S. Miao, A. Ferriter, S. Krupa, T. Armentano, K. Tarboton, K. Rutchey, Q. Dong, and S. Newman
This chapter is an overview of historic hydrologic patterns, the effects of altered hydrology on the ecology of the Everglades, and the tools needed to assess and predict the impacts of water management. This is an anthology of historical information and hydrologic studies conducted over the last 100 years, covering millions of hectares, and includes scientific studies of Everglades soils, plants, and animals...
Loch Vale watershed long-term ecological research and monitoring program: quality assurance report, 2003–09
The Loch Vale watershed project is a long-term research and monitoring program located in Rocky Mountain National Park that addresses watershed-scale ecosystem processes, particularly as they respond to atmospheric deposition and climate variability. Measurements of precipitation depth, precipitation chemistry, discharge, and surface-water quality are made within the watershed and elsewhere in Rocky Mountain National Park. As data collected for the program are used by resource managers, scientists, policy makers, and students, it is important that all data collected in Loch Vale watershed meet high standards of quality...
Riparian floodplain, wetlands of the arid and semiarid Southwest
Land use in the South Platte River valley between the cities of Brighton and Fort Lupton, Colo., is undergoing change as urban areas expand, and the extent of aggregate mining in the Brighton–Fort Lupton area is increasing as the demand for aggregate grows in response to urban development. To improve understanding of land-use change and the potential effects of land-use change and aggregate mining on groundwater flow, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the cities of Brighton and Fort Lupton, analyzed socioeconomic and land-use trends and constructed a numerical groundwater flow model of the South Platte alluvial aquifer in the Brighton–Fort Lupton area...
Chapter 2 - Wood River hydrology and water quality study
Campbell, S.G. and W.J. Ehinger
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Environmental research in the Klamath Basin, Oregon: 1991 Annual Report
The studies in the Wood River Valley, the National Wildlife Refuge, and Agency Lake, Oregon, are being performed under research project “Basin-Wide Optimum Aquatic Resource Management” funded through Reclamation’s WATER (Water Technology and Environmental Research) program. The objective of this research project is to develop a basin-wide management plan to address all aspects of aquatic research and environmental issues in the Klamath Basin. The project was initiated in FY91 and is planned to continue through FY99...
Physical indicators of hydrologic permanence in forested headwater streams
Fritz, K.M., B.R. Johnson, and D.M. Walters
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Journal of the North American Benthological Society