Bats

Legacy ID: 
125
Publication Title: 

Multiple mortality events in bats: a global review

FORT Contact: 
Paul Cryan
Authors: 
O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul; Hayman, David TH; Plowright, Raina K.; Streicker, Daniel G.
Related Staff: 
Tom O'Shea
Paul Cryan
Publication Date: 
2016
Parent Publication Title: 
Mammal Review
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 

Pub Abstract: 
  1. Despite conservation concerns for many species of bats, factors causing mortality in bats have not been reviewed since 1970. Here, we review and qualitatively describe trends in the occurrence and apparent causes of multiple mortality events (MMEs) in bats around the world.
  2. We compiled a database of MMEs, defined as cases in which ≥ 10 dead bats were counted or estimated at a specific location within a maximum timescale of a year, and more typically within a few days or a season. We tabulated 1180 MMEs within nine categories.
  3. Prior to 2000, intentional killing by humans caused the greatest proportion of MMEs in bats. In North America and Europe, people typically killed bats because they were perceived as nuisances. Intentional killing occurred in South America for vampire bat control, in Asia and Australia for fruit depredation control, and in Africa and Asia for human food. Biotic factors, accidents, and natural abiotic factors were also important historically. Chemical contaminants were confirmed causes of MMEs in North America, Europe, and in islands. Viral and bacterial diseases ranked low as causes of MMEs in bats.
  4. Two factors led to a major shift in causes of MMEs in bats at around 2000: the global increase of industrial wind-power facilities and the outbreak of white-nose syndrome in North America. Collisions with wind turbines and white-nose syndrome are now the leading causes of reported MMEs in bats.
  5. Collectively, over half of all reported MMEs were of anthropogenic origin. The documented occurrence of MMEs in bats due to abiotic factors such as intense storms, flooding, heat waves, and drought is likely to increase in the future with climate change. Coupled with the chronic threats of roosting and foraging habitat loss, increasing mortality through MMEs is unlikely to be compensated for, given the need for high survival in the dynamics of bat populations.
Publication Title: 

Advancing migratory bird conservation and management by using radar: an interagency collaboration

FORT Contact: 
Janet Ruth
Authors: 
Ruth, J.M., W.C. Barrow, R.S. Sojda, D.K. Dawson, R.H. Diehl, A. Manville, M.T. Green, D.J. Kreuper, and S. Johnston
Related Staff: 
Janet Ruth
Publication Date: 
2005
Updated Date (text): 
2009-08-06
Parent Publication Title: 
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2005/0032 FORT

Pub Abstract: 

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at Fort Collins Science Center, National Wetlands Research Center, Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, as well as USFWS Migratory Bird biologists across the country, are collaborating with university partners to develop a suite of products for managers. The goals are to identify migratory pathways and stopover sites for conservation, mitigation, and landscape planning; convey the importance of functional landscapes and unobstructed airspaces for migrating wildlife; enable use of radar by the wider biological, wind power, and related communities; and simplify the analysis of radar data. The long term focus is to use radar technologies to better understand movement patterns and habitat associations of migratory birds and other wildlife. Land managers and industry may use the knowledge and tools developed to optimize the siting of energy projects, other facilities, and migratory bird habitat projects.

Publication Title: 

Using radar to advance migratory bird management: an interagency collaboration

FORT Contact: 
Janet Ruth
Authors: 
Sojda, R., J.M. Ruth, W.C. Barrow, D.K. Dawson, R.H. Diehl, A. Manville, M.T. Green, D.J. Krueper, and S. Johnston
Related Staff: 
Janet Ruth
Publication Date: 
2005
Updated Date (text): 
2009-07-24
Parent Publication Title: 
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2005/0028 FORT

Pub Abstract: 

Migratory birds face many changes to the landscapes they traverse and the habitats they use. Wind turbines and communications towers, which pose hazards to birds and bats in flight, are being erected across the United States and offshore. Human activities can also destroy or threaten habitats critical to birds during migratory passage, and climate change appears to be altering migratory patterns. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and other agencies are under increasing pressure to identify and evaluate movement patterns and habitats used during migration and other times…

Publication Title: 

A plan for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat)

FORT Contact: 
Laura Ellison
Authors: 
Loeb, S.C., T.J. Rodhouse, L.E. Ellison, C.L. Lausen, J.D. Reichard, K.M. Irvine, T.E. Ingersoll, J.T.H. Coleman, W.E. Thogmartin, J.R. Sauer, C.M. Francis, M.L. Bayless, T.R. Stanley, and D.H. Johnson
Related Staff: 
Laura Ellison
Tom Stanley
Publication Date: 
2015
Parent Publication Title: 
U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2015/0030 FORT
Species: 

Pub Abstract: 

The purpose of the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is to create a continent-wide program to monitor bats at local to rangewide scales that will provide reliable data to promote effective conservation decisionmaking and the long-term viability of bat populations across the continent. This is an international, multiagency program. Four approaches will be used to gather monitoring data to assess changes in bat distributions and abundances: winter hibernaculum counts, maternity colony counts, mobile acoustic surveys along road transects, and acoustic surveys at stationary points. These monitoring approaches are described along with methods for identifying species recorded by acoustic detectors. Other chapters describe the sampling design, the database management system (Bat Population Database), and statistical approaches that can be used to analyze data collected through this program.

Publication Title: 

Progress Report: The North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat)

FORT Contact: 
Laura Ellison
Authors: 
Ellison, L.E., S.C. Loeb, T.J. Rodhouse, C.L. Lausen, T. Ingersoll, J. Reichard, K.M. Irvine, W.E. Thogmartin, J.T.H. Coleman, J.R. Sauer, R. Dixon, K. Castle, M. Bayless, K. Gillies, and A. McIntire
Related Staff: 
Laura Ellison
Publication Date: 
2014
Parent Publication Title: 
44th Annual North American Society for Bat Research Symposium, October 22-25, 2014, Albany, New York
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2014/0086 FORT

Pub Abstract: 
Publication Title: 

White-nose syndrome initiates a cascade of physiologic disturbances in the hibernating bat host

FORT Contact: 
Paul Cryan
Authors: 
Verant, M.L., C.U. Meteyer, J.R. Speakman, P.M. Cryan, J.M. Lorch and D.S. Blehert
Related Staff: 
Paul Cryan
Publication Date: 
2014
Parent Publication Title: 
BMC Physiology
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2014/0078 FORT
Topics: 

Pub Abstract: 

Background: The physiological effects of white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating bats and ultimate causes of mortality from infection with Pseudogymnoascus (formerly Geomyces) destructans are not fully understood. Increased frequency of arousal from torpor described among hibernating bats with late-stage WNS is thought to accelerate depletion of fat reserves, but the physiological mechanisms that lead to these alterations in hibernation behavior have not been elucidated. We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and clinical chemistry to evaluate energy use, body composition changes, and blood chemistry perturbations in hibernating little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) experimentally infected with P. destructans to better understand the physiological processes that underlie mortality from WNS.

Results: These data indicated that fat energy utilization, as demonstrated by changes in body composition, was two-fold higher for bats with WNS compared to negative controls. These differences were apparent in early stages of infection when torpor-arousal patterns were equivalent between infected and non-infected animals, suggesting that P. destructans has complex physiological impacts on its host prior to onset of clinical signs indicative of late-stage infections. Additionally, bats with mild to moderate skin lesions associated with early-stage WNS demonstrated a chronic respiratory acidosis characterized by significantly elevated dissolved carbon dioxide, acidemia, and elevated bicarbonate. Potassium concentrations were also significantly higher among infected bats, but sodium, chloride, and other hydration parameters were equivalent to controls.

Conclusions: Integrating these novel findings on the physiological changes that occur in early-stage WNS with those previously documented in late-stage infections, we propose a multi-stage disease progression model that mechanistically describes the pathologic and physiologic effects underlying mortality of WNS in hibernating bats. This model identifies testable hypotheses for better understanding this disease, knowledge that will be critical for defining effective disease mitigation strategies aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality that results from WNS.

Publication Title: 

North American Bat Data Integration

FORT Contact: 
Laura Ellison
Authors: 
Ellison, L.E., A.L. Everette, A.E. Ballmann, S.C. Peurach, and J. Coleman
Related Staff: 
Laura Ellison
Lance Everette
Publication Date: 
2014
Parent Publication Title: 
Federation of Earth Science Information Partners meeting, Frisco, Colorado, 15 July 2014
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2014/0019 FORT

Pub Abstract: 
Publication Title: 

Pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome in bats: a mechanistic model linking wing damage to mortality

FORT Contact: 
Paul Cryan
Authors: 
Warnecke, L., J.M. Turner, T.K. Bollinger, V. Misra, P.M. Cryan, D.S. Blehert, G. Wibbelt and C.K.R. Willis
Related Staff: 
Paul Cryan
Publication Date: 
2013
Updated Date (text): 
2013-10-28
Parent Publication Title: 
Biology Letters
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2013/0048 FORT

Pub Abstract: 

White-nose syndrome is devastating North American bat populations but we lack basic information on disease mechanisms. Altered blood physiology owing to epidermal invasion by the fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) has been hypothesized as a cause of disrupted torpor patterns of affected hibernating bats, leading to mortality. Here, we present data on blood electrolyte concentration, haematology and acid–base balance of hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, following experimental inoculation with Gd. Compared with controls, infected bats showed electrolyte depletion (i.e. lower plasma sodium), changes in haematology (i.e. increased haematocrit and decreased glucose) and disrupted acid–base balance (i.e. lower CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate). These findings indicate hypotonic dehydration, hypovolaemia and metabolic acidosis. We propose a mechanistic model linking tissue damage to altered homeostasis and morbidity/mortality.

Publication Title: 

Tracking white-nose syndrome and other threats: a population monitoring program for North American bats

FORT Contact: 
Laura Ellison
Authors: 
Loeb, S., J. Coleman, L. Ellison, T. Rodhouse, and T. Ingersoll
Related Staff: 
Laura Ellison
Publication Date: 
2013
Updated Date (text): 
2013-05-02
Parent Publication Title: 
International Bat Research Conference, Costa Rica, 11-15 August 2013
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2013/0059 FORT

Pub Abstract: 
Publication Title: 

Bats, mines, and citizen science in the Rockies: volunteers make a difference in Colorado

FORT Contact: 
Mark Hayes
Authors: 
Hayes, M.A
Related Staff: 
Mark Hayes
Publication Date: 
2012
Updated Date (text): 
2013-03-13
Parent Publication Title: 
Bats
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
NONCTR/00389
States: 
Topics: 

Pub Abstract: 

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