Journal Article

Code: 
JOUR
Publication Title: 

Information-theoretic model selection and model averaging for closed-population capture-recapture studies

Authors: 
Stanley, T.R., and K.P. Burnham
Publication Date: 
1998
Updated Date (text): 
2013-03-07
Parent Publication Title: 
Biometrical Journal
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
1998/0102 MESC

Pub Abstract: 

None

Publication Title: 

Alternative standardization approaches to improving streamflow reconstructions with ring-width indices of riparian trees

Authors: 
Meko, D.M., J.M. Friedman, R. Touchan, J.R. Edmondson, E.R. Griffin, and J.A. Scott
Publication Date: 
2015
Parent Publication Title: 
The Holocene
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2015/0040 FORT
States: 

Pub Abstract: 

Old, multi-aged populations of riparian trees provide an opportunity to improve reconstructions of streamflow. Here, ring widths of 394 plains cottonwood (Populus deltoids, ssp. monilifera) trees in the North Unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, are used to reconstruct streamflow along the Little Missouri River (LMR), North Dakota, US. Different versions of the cottonwood chronology are developed by (1) age-curve standardization (ACS), using age-stratified samples and a single estimated curve of ring width against estimated ring age, and (2) time-curve standardization (TCS), using a subset of longer ring-width series individually detrended with cubic smoothing splines of width against year. The cottonwood chronologies are combined with the first principal component of four upland conifer chronologies developed by conventional methods to investigate the possible value of riparian tree-ring chronologies for streamflow reconstruction of the LMR. Regression modeling indicates that the statistical signal for flow is stronger in the riparian cottonwood than in the upland chronologies. The flow signal from cottonwood complements rather than repeats the signal from upland conifers and is especially strong in young trees (e.g. 5–35 years). Reconstructions using a combination of cottonwoods and upland conifers are found to explain more than 50% of the variance of LMR flow over a 1935–1990 calibration period and to yield reconstruction of flow to 1658. The low-frequency component of reconstructed flow is sensitive to the choice of standardization method for the cottonwood. In contrast to the TCS version, the ACS reconstruction features persistent low flows in the 19th century. Results demonstrate the value to streamflow reconstruction of riparian cottonwood and suggest that more studies are needed to exploit the low-frequency streamflow signal in densely sampled age-stratified stands of riparian trees.

Publication Title: 

Seasonal shifts in the diet of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), Fort Collins, Colorado

Authors: 
Valdez, E.W. and T.J. O’Shea
Publication Date: 
2014
Parent Publication Title: 
The Southwestern Naturalist
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2014/0095 FORT
States: 
Topics: 

Pub Abstract: 

Recent analyses suggest that the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) may be less of a beetle specialist (Coleoptera) in the western United States than previously thought, and that its diet might also vary with temperature. We tested the hypothesis that big brown bats might opportunistically prey on moths by analyzing insect fragments in guano pellets from 30 individual bats (27 females and 3 males) captured while foraging in Fort Collins, Colorado, during May, late July–early August, and late September 2002. We found that bats sampled 17–20 May (n = 12 bats) had a high (81–83%) percentage of volume of lepidopterans in guano, with the remainder (17–19% volume) dipterans and no coleopterans. From 28 May–9 August (n = 17 bats) coleopterans dominated (74–98% volume). On 20 September (n = 1 bat) lepidopterans were 99% of volume in guano. Migratory miller moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) were unusually abundant in Fort Collins in spring and autumn of 2002 and are known agricultural pests as larvae (army cutworms), suggesting that seasonal dietary flexibility in big brown bats has economic benefits.

Publication Title: 

Tree mortality from drought, insects, and their interactions in a changing climate

Authors: 
Anderegg, W.R.L., J.A. Hicke, R.A. Fisher, C.D. Allen, J. Aukema, B. Bentz, S. Hood, J.W. Lichstein, A.K. Macalady, N. McDowell, Y. Pan, K. Raffa, A. Sala, J.D. Shaw, N.L. Stephenson, C. Tague, and M. Zeppel
Parent Publication Title: 
New Phytologist
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 

Pub Abstract: 

Climate change is expected to drive increased tree mortality through drought, heat stress, and insect attacks, with manifold impacts on forest ecosystems. Yet, climate-induced tree mortality and biotic disturbance agents are largely absent from process-based ecosystem models. Using data sets from the western USA and associated studies, we present a framework for determining the relative contribution of drought stress, insect attack, and their interactions, which is critical for modeling mortality in future climates. We outline a simple approach that identifies the mechanisms associated with two guilds of insects – bark beetles and defoliators – which are responsible for substantial tree mortality. We then discuss cross-biome patterns of insect-driven tree mortality and draw upon available evidence contrasting the prevalence of insect outbreaks in temperate and tropical regions. We conclude with an overview of tools and promising avenues to address major challenges. Ultimately, a multitrophic approach that captures tree physiology, insect populations, and tree–insect interactions will better inform projections of forest ecosystem responses to climate change.

Publication Title: 

Age-specific vibrissae growth rates: A tool for determining the timing of ecologically important events in Steller sea lions

Authors: 
Rea, L.D., A.M. Christ, A.B. Hayden, V.K. Stegall, S.D. Farley, C.A. Stricker, J.E. Mellish, J.M. Maniscalco, J.N. Waite, V.N. Burkanov, and K.W. Pitcher
Publication Date: 
2015
Parent Publication Title: 
Marine Mammal Science
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2015/0038 FORT
States: 

Pub Abstract: 

Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) grow their vibrissae continually, providing a multiyear record suitable for ecological and physiological studies based on stable isotopes. An accurate age-specific vibrissae growth rate is essential for registering a chronology along the length of the record, and for interpreting the timing of ecologically important events. We utilized four methods to estimate the growth rate of vibrissae in fetal, rookery pup, young-of-the-year (YOY), yearling, subadult, and adult SSL. The majority of vibrissae were collected from SSL live-captured in Alaska and Russia between 2000 and 2013 (n = 1,115), however, vibrissae were also collected from six adult SSL found dead on haul-outs and rookeries during field excursions to increase the sample size of this underrepresented age group. Growth rates of vibrissae were generally slower in adult (0.44 +/- 0.15 cm/mo) and subadult (0.61 +/- 0.10 cm/mo) SSL than in YOY (0.87 +/- 0.28 cm/mo) and fetal (0.73 +/- 0.05 cm/mo) animals, but there was high individual variability in these growth rates within each age group. Some variability in vibrissae growth rates was attributed to the somatic growth rate of YOY sea lions between capture events (P = 0.014, r2 = 0.206, n = 29).

Publication Title: 

Running a Network on a Shoestring: the Global Invasive Species Information Network

Authors: 
Jarnevich, C.S., A. Simpson, J.J. Graham, G.J. Newman, and C.T. Bargeron
Publication Date: 
2015
Parent Publication Title: 
Management of Biological Invasions
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2015/0036 FORT

Pub Abstract: 

The Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN) was conceptualized in 2004 to aggregate and disseminate invasive species data in a standardized way. A decade later the GISIN community has implemented a data portal and three of six GISIN data aggregation models in the GISIN data exchange Protocol, including invasive species status information, resource URLs, and occurrence data. The portal is based on a protocol developed by representatives from 15 countries and 27 organizations of the global invasive species information management community. The GISIN has 19 data providers sharing 34,343 species status records, 1,693,073 occurrences, and 15,601 resource URLs. While the GISIN's goal is to be global, much of its data and funding are provided by the United States. Several initiatives use the GISIN as their information backbone, such as the Great Lakes Early Detection Network (GLEDN) and the North American Invasive Species Network (NAISN). Here we share several success stories and organizational challenges that remain.

Publication Title: 

Incorporating climate change projections into riparian restoration planning and design

Authors: 
Perry, L.G., L.V. Reynolds, T.J. Beechie, M.J. Collins, and P.B. Shafroth
Parent Publication Title: 
Ecohydrology
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 

Pub Abstract: 

Climate change and associated changes in streamflow may alter riparian habitats substantially in coming decades. Riparian restoration provides opportunities to respond proactively to projected climate change effects, increase riparian ecosystem resilience to climate change, and simultaneously address effects of both climate change and other human disturbances. However, climate change may alter which restoration methods are most effective and which restoration goals can be achieved. Incorporating climate change into riparian restoration planning and design is critical to long-term restoration of desired community composition and ecosystem services.

In this review, we discuss and provide examples of how climate change might be incorporated into restoration planning at the key stages of assessing the project context, establishing restoration goals and design criteria, evaluating design alternatives, and monitoring restoration outcomes. Restoration planners have access to numerous tools to predict future climate, streamflow, and riparian ecology at restoration sites. Planners can use those predictions to assess which species or ecosystem services will be most vulnerable under future conditions, and which sites will be most suitable for restoration. To accommodate future climate and streamflow change, planners may need to adjust methods for planting, invasive species control, channel and floodplain reconstruction, and water management. Given the considerable uncertainty in future climate and streamflow projections, riparian ecological responses, and effects on restoration outcomes, planners will need to consider multiple potential future scenarios, implement a variety of restoration methods, design projects with flexibility to adjust to future conditions, and plan to respond adaptively to unexpected change.

Publication Title: 

Using sutures to attach miniature tracking tags to small bats for multi-month movement and behavioral studies

Authors: 
Castle, K.T., T.J. Weller, P Cryan, C.D. Hein, and M.R. Schirmacher
Parent Publication Title: 
Ecology and Evolution
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 

Pub Abstract: 
Publication Title: 

Encapsulating model complexity and landscape-scale analyses of state-and-transition simulation models: an application of ecoinformatics and juniper encroachment in sagebrush steppe ecosystems

Authors: 
O’Donnell, M.S.
Publication Date: 
2015
Parent Publication Title: 
AIMS Environmental Science
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2015/0033 FORT

Pub Abstract: 

State-and-transition simulation modeling relies on knowledge of vegetation composition and structure (states) that describe community conditions, mechanistic feedbacks such as fire that can affect vegetation establishment, and ecological processes that drive community conditions as well as the transitions between these states. However, as the need for modeling larger and more complex landscapes increase, a more advanced awareness of computing resources becomes essential. The objectives of this study include identifying challenges of executing state-and-transition simulation models, identifying common bottlenecks of computing resources, developing a workflow and software that enable parallel processing of Monte Carlo simulations, and identifying the advantages and disadvantages of different computing resources. To address these objectives, this study used the ApexRMS® SyncroSim software and embarrassingly parallel tasks of Monte Carlo simulations on a single multicore computer and on distributed computing systems. The results demonstrated that state-and-transition simulation models scale best in distributed computing environments, such as high-throughput and high-performance computing, because these environments disseminate the workloads across many compute nodes, thereby supporting analysis of larger landscapes, higher spatial resolution vegetation products, and more complex models. Using a case study and five different computing environments, the top result (high-throughput computing versus serial computations) indicated an approximate 96.6% decrease of computing time. With a single, multicore compute node (bottom result), the computing time indicated an 81.8% decrease relative to using serial computations. These results provide insight into the tradeoffs of using different computing resources when research necessitates advanced integration of ecoinformatics incorporating large and complicated data inputs and models.

Publication Title: 

Observations of two non-native snake species in the same remote area of southern Florida

Authors: 
Hanslowe, E.B., B.G. Falk, M.A. McEachern, and R.N. Reed
Publication Date: 
2015
Parent Publication Title: 
IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2015/0035 FORT
States: 

Pub Abstract: 

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