Wyoming

Legacy ID: 
55
State Code: 
WY
Country Code: 
USA
Area: 
97 803.20
Latitude: 
43.00
Longitude: 
-107.55

Targeted Research and Monitoring

Code: 
PB00D8K.2
Abstract: 

Statement of Problem

Wyoming supports a diverse flora/fauna (an estimated 297 species identified as having the greatest conservation need). Species of conservation concern include 54 mammals, 60 birds, 26 reptiles, 12 amphibians, 40 fishes, 19 crustaceans, and 68 mollusks. The Green River Basin of Southwest Wyoming is dominated by sagebrush-steppe habitat, which has declined in western North America by nearly 50 percent since Anglo-European settlement. Because the majority of sagebrush steppe in Wyoming occurs on public lands, Wyoming plays an important role in the conservation of sagebrush-dependent and sagebrush-obligate species, including white-tailed prairie dogs (currently under reconsideration for listing under the Federal Endangered Species Act), sage sparrows, pygmy rabbits (considered critically imperiled in Wyoming; currently under reconsideration for federal ESA listing), greater sage-grouse (currently under reconsideration for federal ESA listing), ungulates, and several amphibian and reptile species. Recent and ongoing land-use changes in Southwest Wyoming are transforming the landscape composition, resulting in habitat loss/fragmentation---thus, increasing the threat of harm to wildlife populations. Furthermore, each year, habitat enhancements and vegetation treatments are applied across Southwest Wyoming (during FY07/08, more than 50 conservation enhancement projects were proposed through the WLCI and other government and nongovernmental organizations). In the past, however, little effort has been made to assess the effectiveness of treatments to meet their stated goals and even less to evaluate their collective effectiveness in meeting landscape-level conservation goals like connecting fragmented habitats. Overall, current long-term and effectiveness monitoring in the Green River Basin of Southwest Wyoming is insufficient for assessing cumulative effects or the effectiveness of on-the-ground treatments. When long-term monitoring is coupled with management, it also has the potential to be used for early warning, whereby management interventions are triggered before reaching critical and potentially costly levels of action. Thus, it is crucial to implement project-level effectiveness and long-term monitoring of key indicators to compare management targets, benchmarks, or goals for informing the decision-making process within an adaptive management context.

Objectives

This task entails three subtasks, the overall objectives of which are to monitor Southwest Wyoming ecosystem condition over the long run, monitor the effectiveness of on-the-ground habitat treatments to enhance or maintain wildlife populations, and improve our overall understanding of the mechanisms behind population dynamics of key wildlife groups or species of conservation concern. Objective of Subtask 2.1—Initiate monitoring for landscape-level, long-term trends using key response variables. Objective of Subtask 2.2—Initiate effectiveness monitoring for 07-08 habitat treatments and mitigation using key response variables. Objective of Subtask 2.3—Design and initiate studies to address mechanisms and processes by which key species and populations are affected by energy development activities.

Methods

The overall approach for this task is to conduct landscape-scale, long-term monitoring to ascertain ecosystem changes associated with energy development, other land-use changes, and climate change; monitor the effectiveness of habitat-improvement and mitigation projects; and conduct research to elucidate the mechanisms behind wildlife responses to changes on the landscape. More specifically, the first step will be to stratify characteristics of Southwest Wyoming to ensure appropriate representation of indicator variables and the requisite intensity of sampling to maximize the accuracy of indicator estimates. This will enable us to design and implement the long-term and effectiveness monitoring programs, including monitoring of wildlife (including mule deer, sage-grouse, songbird communities, herptiles, fish communities, invertebrate pollinators, small mammal communities, pygmy rabbits, habitat/vegetation communities (including invasive plants), water, and soils. See each subtask for detailed methods.

Publication Title: 

Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales

FORT Contact: 
Adrian Monroe
Authors: 
Monroe, A. P., C. L. Aldridge, T. J. Assal, K. E. Veblen, D. A. Pyke, and M. L. Casazza.
Related Staff: 
Adrian Monroe
Cameron Aldridge
Timothy Assal
Publication Date: 
2017
Parent Publication Title: 
Ecological Applications
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
States: 

Pub Abstract: 

Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004–2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems.

Publication Title: 

U.S. Geological Survey science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative—2015 annual report

FORT Contact: 
Cynthia Melcher
Authors: 
Bowen, Z.H., Aldridge, C.L., Anderson, P.J., Assal, T.J., Bartos, T.T., Chalfoun, A.D., Chong, G.W., Dematatis, M.K., Eddy-Miller, C.A., Garman, S.L., Germaine, S.S., Homer, C.G., Huber, C.C., Kauffman, M.J., Manier, D.J., Melcher, C.P., Miller, K.A., Norkin, Tamar, Sanders, L.E., Walters, A.W., Wilson, A.B., and Wyckoff, T.B.
Related Staff: 
Zack Bowen
Pat Anderson
Timothy Assal
Geneva Chong
Marie Dematatis
Chris Huber
Daniel Manier
Cynthia Melcher
Publication Date: 
2016
Parent Publication Title: 
Open-File Report
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
States: 

Pub Abstract: 

This is the eighth annual report highlighting U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science and decision-support activities conducted for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). The activities address specific management needs identified by WLCI partner agencies. In 2015, USGS scientists continued 24 WLCI projects in 5 categories: (1) acquiring and analyzing resource-condition data to form a foundation for understanding and monitoring landscape conditions and projecting changes; (2) using new technologies to improve the scope and accuracy of landscape-scale monitoring and assessments, and applying them to monitor indicators of ecosystem conditions and the effectiveness of on-the-ground habitat projects; (3) conducting research to elucidate the mechanisms that drive wildlife and habitat responses to changing land uses; (4) managing and making accessible the large number of databases, maps, and other products being developed; and (5) coordinating efforts among WLCI partners, helping them to use USGS-developed decision-support tools, and integrating WLCI outcomes with future habitat enhancement and research projects. Of the 24 projects, 21 were ongoing, including those that entered new phases or more in-depth lines of inquiry, 2 were new, and 1 was completed.

A highlight of 2015 was the WLCI science conference sponsored by the USGS, Bureau of Land Management, and National Park Service in coordination with the Wyoming chapter of The Wildlife Society. Of 260 participants, 41 were USGS professionals representing 13 USGS science centers, field offices, and Cooperative Wildlife Research Units. Major themes of USGS presentations included using new technologies for developing more efficient research protocols for modeling and monitoring natural resources, researching effects of energy development and other land uses on wildlife species and habitats of concern, and modeling species distributions, population trends, habitat use, and effects of land-use changes. There was also a special session on the effectiveness of Wyoming’s Sage-Grouse Executive Order. Combined, USGS presentations provided WLCI partners with a wealth of information and conservation tools.

The project completed in 2015 yielded an index of important agricultural lands in the WLCI region. The index improves upon existing measures of agricultural productivity and provides planners and managers with additional values to consider when making decisions about land use and conservation actions. The two new projects include an analysis of satellite imagery to quantify sagebrush productivity and mortality, and an evaluation of how groundwater and small streams interact in the upper Green River Basin. Initiated in response to concern among WLCI partners that large areas of sagebrush appear to have died recently, the sagebrush study objectives are to assess effects of these mortality events on overall sagebrush ecosystem productivity, evaluate the feasibility of using satellite imagery to detect patterns in sagebrush mortality over time, and identify factors driving these mortality events. The groundwater-streamflow interaction study is being conducted by hydrologists and fish ecologists to better understand how groundwater-streamflow interactions are affected by energy-resource development and how native fish communities are affected by these factors. Expected outcomes of both new projects will provide WLCI partners with additional information and decision-support tools.

Highlights of ongoing science foundation activities included simulations of nine alternative build-out scenarios for oil and gas development and an associated online fact sheet that explains how the simulations were conducted, with an applied example for the Atlantic Rim. Also completed in 2015 was an update of the USGS online inventory of mineral resources data, and publication of a USGS uranium resource survey for the WLCI region. Combined, the outcomes of this work provide decisionmakers and managers with important baseline information for existing and (or) future planning and monitoring efforts.

Terrestrial monitoring activities in 2015 emphasized the use of satellite data in combination with other technologies and field data to monitor, assess, and (or) forecast distribution patterns and (or) trends in sagebrush ecosystems, seasonal and migration stopover habitats used by mule deer and elk, and semi-arid aspen woodlands. Several professional papers detailing new monitoring models and results have been published. Combined, this and related work will help managers understand distribution patterns and trends among priority habitats, identify areas in need of restoration or conservation, and monitor the effectiveness of habitat-management actions.

Aquatic monitoring activities entailed not only the new groundwater-streamflow interaction study already mentioned, but also continued monitoring with streamgages paired with nearby wells in the Green River Basin to assess groundwater effects on streamflow and surface water temperatures. A map that portrays groundwater levels and general direction of flow in the Green River Basin was published as well. Overall, outcomes of USGS hydrological research and monitoring will inform WLCI partners about water resources in the WLCI region and help to explain fish-community responses to energy-resource development.

In 2015, USGS terrestrial wildlife ecologists continued to make crucial strides towards better understanding wildlife species responses to energy-resource development and other land-use changes. This body of research includes six taxa that require or heavily depend on sagebrush habitats: sage-grouse, pygmy rabbits, 3 songbird species, and mule deer. Native fish communities are also being evaluated. Approaches include modeling and mapping wildlife species distributions, abundances, and trends; using satellite and other technologies to track wildlife seasonal movements; conducting successive phases of research that build on the knowledge gained through prior phases to reveal the specific factors or thresholds that drive population- or individual-level responses to changes; and conducting population viability analyses. Additionally, wildlife habitat association models for pygmy rabbit and sage-grouse were combined with the oil and gas build-out scenarios to project species responses to alternative energy development scenarios. Outcomes of the wildlife response research are helping decisionmakers and managers identify specific factors that contribute to species population trends, the potential for spatial overlap between important wildlife habitats and proposed energy-resource development, locations of priority habitats for restoration and conservation, and more.

Data and WLCI Web site management highlights of 2015 included not only ongoing software upgrades, but also an update of the datasets displayed in two of the online products developed for the WLCI effort: (1) a map of 15,532 oil and natural gas well pad scars and other features associated with oil and gas extraction, and (2) a map of oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar energy production, both for southwestern Wyoming. In addition, a map viewer was developed for a previously published map of coal and wind production in relation to sage-grouse distribution and core management areas in southwestern Wyoming. Combined, these maps place valuable decision-support tools in the hands of WLCI partners.

The USGS coordination efforts on behalf of the WLCI in 2015 included significant work on planning and executing the WLCI science conference. They also included ongoing efforts to support Local Project Development Teams and the WLCI Coordination Team (CT) with developing conservation priorities and strategies, identifying priority areas for future conservation actions, supporting the evaluation and ranking of conservation projects, and evaluating the ways in which proposed habitat projects relate to WLCI priorities. In 2015, the USGS also assisted the WLCI CT with updating the WLCI Conservation Action Plan.

 

Publication Title: 

Analysis of Land Disturbance and Pygmy Rabbit Occupancy Values Associated With Oil and Gas Extraction in Southwestern Wyoming, 2012

FORT Contact: 
Stephen Germaine
Authors: 
Germaine, S.S., Carter, S.K., Ignizio, D.A., and Freeman, A.T.
Related Staff: 
Stephen Germaine
Sarah Carter
Drew Ignizio
Aaron Freeman
Publication Date: 
2017-06-07
Parent Publication Title: 
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
States: 

Pub Abstract: 

Pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) are a Species of Greatest Conservation Need in Wyoming. They are designated as such because they are sagebrush obligates and entrained in the health and intactness of sagebrush steppe landscapes. Southwest Wyoming, where pygmy rabbits occur, has become an epicenter of domestic oil and gas exploration and this activity contributes to loss and fragmentation of sagebrush habitats. This tabular file that was used for analysis contains the following data/information: survey site, plot, and gas field; pygmy rabbit occupancy status; UTM coordinates associated with occupancy (dithered to protect pygmy rabbits from further disturbance); an index value indicating amount of fresh pygmy rabbit sign present on each survey plot; UTM coordinates (dithered) associated with the single greatest concentration of fresh pygmy rabbit sign on each plot; shrub and sagebrush cover values on each plot, extracted from Wyoming Sagebrush Map data (Homer, C. G., C. L. Aldridge, D. K. Meyer, and S. J. Schell. 2012. Multi-scale remote sensing sagebrush characterization with regression trees over Wyoming, USA: Laying a foundation for monitoring. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 14:233–244); area covered by each of 10 gas field infrastructure elements; vegetative cover and infrastructure all were mapped within 0.5 km and 1 km radius of each plot focal point (i.e., UTM coordinates associated with occupancy). Full description of each variable in this data set are provided in Germaine, et al. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1817).

Publication Title: 

Relationships between gas field development and the presence and abundance of pygmy rabbits in southwestern Wyoming

FORT Contact: 
Stephen Germaine
Authors: 
Germaine, S. S., S. K. Carter, D. A. Ignizio, and A. T. Freeman.
Related Staff: 
Stephen Germaine
Sarah Carter
Drew Ignizio
Aaron Freeman
Publication Date: 
2017
Parent Publication Title: 
Ecosphere
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
States: 

Pub Abstract: 

More than 5957 km2 in southwestern Wyoming is currently covered by operational gas fields, and further development is projected through 2030. Gas fields fragment landscapes through conversion of native vegetation to roads, well pads, pipeline corridors, and other infrastructure elements. The sagebrush steppe landscape where most of this development is occurring harbors 24 sagebrush-associated species of greatest conservation need, but the effects of gas energy development on most of these species are unknown. Pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) are one such species. In 2011, we began collecting three years of survey data to examine the relationship between gas field development density and pygmy rabbit site occupancy patterns on four major Wyoming gas fields (Continental Divide–Creston–Blue Gap, Jonah, Moxa Arch, Pinedale Anticline Project Area). We surveyed 120 plots across four gas fields, with plots distributed across the density gradient of gas well pads on each field. In a 1 km radius around the center of each plot, we measured the area covered by each of 10 gas field infrastructure elements and by shrub cover using 2012 National Agriculture Imagery Program imagery. We then modeled the relationship between gas field elements, pygmy rabbit presence, and two indices of pygmy rabbit abundance. Gas field infrastructure elements—specifically buried utility corridors and a complex of gas well pads, adjacent disturbed areas, and well pad access roads—were negatively correlated with pygmy rabbit presence and abundance indices, with sharp declines apparent after approximately 2% of the area consisted of gas field infrastructure. We conclude that pygmy rabbits in southwestern Wyoming may be sensitive to gas field development at levels similar to those observed for greater sage-grouse, and may suffer local population declines at lower levels of development than are allowed in existing plans and policies designed to conserve greater sage-grouse by limiting the surface footprint of energy development. Buried utilities, gas well pads, areas adjacent to well pads, and well pad access roads had the strongest negative correlation with pygmy rabbit presence and abundance. Minimizing the surface footprint of these elements may reduce negative impacts of gas energy development on pygmy rabbits.

Publication Title: 

First estimates of the probability of survival in a small-bodied, high-elevation frog (Boreal Chorus Frog, Pseudacris maculata), or how historical data can be useful

FORT Contact: 
Erin Muths
Authors: 
Muths, E.L., R.D. Scherer, S.M. Amburgey, T. Matthews, A.W. Spencer, and P.S. Corn
Related Staff: 
Erin Muths
Publication Date: 
2016
Parent Publication Title: 
Canadian Journal of Zoology
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 

Pub Abstract: 

In an era of shrinking budgets yet increasing demands for conservation, the value of existing (i.e., historical) data are elevated. Lengthy time series on common, or previously common, species are particularly valuable and may be available only through the use of historical information. We provide first estimates of the probability of survival and longevity (0.67–0.79 and 5–7 years, respectively) for a subalpine population of a small-bodied, ostensibly common amphibian, the Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata (Agassiz, 1850)), using historical data and contemporary, hypothesis-driven information–theoretic analyses. We also test a priori hypotheses about the effects of color morph (as suggested by early reports) and of drought (as suggested by recent climate predictions) on survival. Using robust mark–recapture models, we find some support for early hypotheses regarding the effect of color on survival, but we find no effect of drought. The congruence between early findings and our analyses highlights the usefulness of historical information in providing raw data for contemporary analyses and context for conservation and management decisions.

Publication Title: 

Why You Can’t Ignore Disease When You Reintroduce Animals

FORT Contact: 
Erin Muths
Authors: 
Muths, E.L. and H. McCallum
Related Staff: 
Erin Muths
Publication Date: 
2016
Parent Publication Title: 
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 

Pub Abstract: 

Infectious disease is an important consideration when contemplating reintroduction of a species to an area from which it has been extirpated and is one risk that has escalated in recent decades as use of large-scale and hands-on conservation measures increase. Reintroduction (in essence moving animals around), is a management tool considered when populations are failing or extirpations have occurred, yet is obviously at odds with many of the tenets of disease management. We focus on extirpations attributed to disease and formulate a decision tree to guide managers considering reintroduction. If disease was not the original cause of extinction or decline, it still is important to consider as inadvertent introduction of disease with reintroduced hosts may cause a reintroduction to fail, or may threaten members of the recipient ecological community. If disease was an important agent of extinction or decline, then the disease threat must be addressed before reintroduction is contemplated, or the effort is highly likely to fail. If disease resistant or tolerant stock are available, then reintroducing these animals may succeed. If such stock are not available, then it is important to determine whether reservoirs are present, and if they are, to develop strategies to manage disease adequately in the reservoirs. If reservoirs are not present, then the biggest threat to a reintroduction is the presence of still-infected members of the species being reintroduced. We illustrate these principles with two case studies, the boreal toad (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas), threatened by the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus hariisii), threatened by a transmissible cancer.

Increase in Domestic Energy Production Contributing to Sage-grouse Population Declines

A new study used the annual counts of male sage-grouse at communal breeding sites in Wyoming to measure population size over time in relation to the density of oil and gas wells. These data determined that Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations in the state declined 2.5 percent annually between 1984 and 2008, with the rise in domestic energy production contributing to the decline.

Publication Title: 

A Multiscale Index of Landscape Intactness for the Western United States

FORT Contact: 
Natasha Carr
Authors: 
Carr, N.B., I.I.F. Leinwand, and D.J.A. Wood
Related Staff: 
Natasha Carr
Ian Leinwand
Publication Date: 
2016
Parent Publication Title: 
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 

Pub Abstract: 

Landscape intactness has been defined as a quantifiable estimate of naturalness measured on a gradient of anthropogenic influence. We developed a multiscale index of landscape intactness for the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) landscape approach, which requires multiple scales of information to quantify the cumulative effects of land use. The multiscale index of landscape intactness represents a gradient of anthropogenic influence as represented by development levels at two analysis scales.

To create the index, we first mapped the surface disturbance footprint of development, for the western U.S., by compiling and combining spatial data for urban development, agriculture, energy and minerals, and transportation for 17 states. All linear features and points were buffered to create a surface disturbance footprint. Buffered footprints and polygonal data were rasterized at 15-meter (m), aggregated to 30-m, and then combined with the existing 30-meter inputs for urban development and cultivated croplands. The footprint area was represented as a proportion of the cell and was summed using a raster calculator. To reduce processing time, the 30-m disturbance footprint was aggregated to 90-m. The 90-m resolution surface disturbance footprint is retained as a separate raster data sets in this data release (Surface Disturbance Footprint from Development for the Western United States). We used a circular moving window to create a terrestrial development index for two scales of analysis, 2.5-kilometer (km) and 20-km, by calculating the percent of the surface disturbance footprint at each scale. The terrestrial development index at both the 2.5-km (Terrestrial Development Index for the Western United States: 2.5-km moving window) and 20-km (Terrestrial Development Index for the Western United States: 20-km moving window) were retained as separate raster data sets in this data release. The terrestrial development indexes at two analysis scales were ranked and combined to create the multiscale index of landscape intactness (retained as Landscape Intactness Index for the Western United States) in this data release. To identify intact areas, we focused on terrestrial development index scores less than or equal to 3 percent, which represented relatively low levels of development on multiple-use lands managed by the BLM and other land management agencies.

The multiscale index of landscape intactness was designed to be flexible, transparent, defensible, and applicable across multiple spatial scales, ecological boundaries, and jurisdictions. To foster transparency and facilitate interpretation, the multiscale index of landscape intactness data release retains four component data sets to enable users to interpret the multiscale index of landscape intactness: the surface disturbance footprint, the terrestrial development index summarized at two scales (2.5-km and 20-km circular moving windows), and the overall landscape intactness index. The multiscale index is a proposed core indicator to quantify landscape integrity for the BLM Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring program and is intended to be used in conjunction with additional regional- or local-level information not available at national levels (such as invasive species occurrence) necessary to evaluate ecological integrity for the BLM landscape approach.

Decision Support for Climate Adaptation in the Upper Colorado River Basin: Why Drought Decision Makers Choose to Use Tools (or Not)

Code: 
RB00CME.1
Chris M. Morris, Creative Commons.
Abstract: 

Purpose

Adapting to climate change and variability, and their associated impacts, requires integrating scientific information into complex decision making processes. Recognizing this challenge, there have been calls for federal climate change science to be designed and conducted in a way that ensures the research translates into effective decision support. Despite the existence of many decision support tools, however, the factors that influence which decision makers choose to use which decision support tools remain poorly understood. Using the Upper Colorado River Drought Early Warning System as a case study, this research will 1) examine how managers choose between many available tools and 2) consider how tool creators can better align their offerings to decision maker needs.

Objectives

1. Improve understanding of:

  •  The factors that influence decision makers’ choices to use decision support tools or not, and how they choose between available tools
  •  How scientists creating decision support tools currently interface with decision makers and how their outreach efforts do or do not match information channels preferred by managers
  •  The role that decision support tools play in drought decision making

2. Provide useful information to the National Integrated Drought Information System about the current use of the Upper Colorado River Basin Drought Early Warning System

Methods

Study Area and Scope

The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) was one of the first pilot areas, beginning in 2008, for implementation of a regional drought early warning system (DEWS) under the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS), which now supports ten regional DEWS. The selection of the UCRB for a DEWS reflects the regional importance of drought monitoring for managing water supply for agriculture and other uses, and the need for effective decision support related to drought. New drought-information tools have been developed specifically for the UCRB DEWS, and a number of others have been created since 2008, adding to the pre-existing toolkit for drought decision making. The various tools that are now available in the UCRB region can be expected to be more or less suitable for different decision makers’ needs. As a result, the broad decision context of this case study (managing drought) is fixed, but information needs vary. Thus decision makers will make varied choices about which of the available tools to use or not use.

Data Collection

The overall aim is to juxtapose understanding of the tool development process of tool creators with understanding of the choices made by prospective tool users to incorporate (or not) given decision support tools into their drought decision making. Document analysis will provide context and an official view of tool development or agency decision making. Conversations with scientists creating tools and drought decision makers will be used to understand motivations, priorities, concerns, and tacit influences on behavior.

Pages