Myotis grisescens

Common Name: 
GRAY MYOTIS
Taxonomic Key: 
Mammals
Legacy ID: 
2 100
Species Name: 
grisescens
Publication Title: 

White-nose syndrome in bats: Illuminating the darkness

Authors: 
Cryan, P.M., C.U. Meteyer, J.G. Boyles, D.S. Blehert
Publication Date: 
2013
Updated Date (text): 
2012-12-21
Parent Publication Title: 
BMC Biology
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2013/0039 FORT

Pub Abstract: 

Happy ten-year anniversary to BMC Biology! We can attest to the effectiveness of the journal in reaching a great diversity of scientists based on reader responses to our commentary [1] about bat white-nose syndrome (WNS) two years ago. WNS is still on course to rank among the most destructive wildlife diseases to emerge in recent history, and it has continued to have unprecedented effects on populations of hibernating bats in eastern North America. At the time of our last writing in November 2010, the cold-adapted fungus then presumed to cause WNS (Geomyces destructans) had spread about 1,300 km from an index site in New York (Figure 1). In those early years of the epizootic, WNS caused a staggering wave of mass mortality among all six species of hibernating bats that occur in north-eastern North America. Since November 2010, WNS has spread into eight additional US states and two more Canadian provinces (Figure 1), and has continued to cause mortality in those six species most affected during the early years of the epizootic. Although part of a mostly tragic story has continued to unfold as new areas are affected, anecdotal signs are emerging that all may not be lost when it comes to hibernating bats and WNS. Amid the continued large-scale population declines of certain species, we have yet to see mass mortality in some of the more westerly areas where the fungus was detected two winters ago (Figure 1). Also, recently disease without obvious mortality was diagnosed in gray bats (Myotis grisescens) - an endangered species thought by many two years ago to be at high risk of extinction from WNS. Clearly, large gaps in our understanding of WNS remain, but some have been filled since we last communicated with readers of BMC Biology.

Publication Title: 

Lights, camera, action: behaviors of hibernating bats before and after WNS revealed by surveillance video

Authors: 
Cryan, P., J. Boyles, G. McCracken, K. Castle, D. Dalton, J. Yanez, J. Beeler, A. Wilson, A. Hicks, C. Herzog, R. vonLinden, S. Johnson, C. Hudson, T. Shier, and J. Coleman
Publication Date: 
2012
Updated Date (text): 
2012-06-20
Parent Publication Title: 
Annual White-nose Syndrome Symposium, 6 June, 2012, Madison, Wisconsin
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2012/0044 FORT

Pub Abstract: 
Publication Title: 

White-nose Syndrome Disease Tracking System (v.1)

Authors: 
Everette, A.L., P.M. Cryan, and K. Peterson
Publication Date: 
2012
Updated Date (text): 
2012-12-28
Parent Publication Title: 
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2012/0134 FORT

Pub Abstract: 

A Devastating Disease

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging and devastating disease of hibernating bats in North America. WNS is caused by a cold-growing fungus (Geomyces destructans) that infects the skin of hibernating bats during winter and causes life-threatening alterations in physiology and behavior. WNS has spread rapidly across the eastern United States and Canada since it was first documented in New York in the winter of 2006.  This new disease is causing mass mortality and detrimentally affecting most of the 6 species of bats that hibernate in the northeastern United States. Particularly hard-hit are the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis), eastern small-footed bat (Myotis leibii), and federally endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). Several more species are also now known to be exposed to the fungus in the Midwest and Southeast. The sudden and widespread mortality associated with white-nose syndrome is unprecedented in any of the world’s bats and is a cause for international concern as the fungus and the disease spread farther north, south, and west.  Loss of these long-lived insect-eating bats could have substantial adverse effects on agriculture and forestry through loss of natural pest-control services.

Tracking a Deadly Disease

Because WNS is spreading so rapidly, field surveillance data and diagnostic samples must be managed efficiently so that critical information can be communicated quickly among State and Federal land managers, as well as the public. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which plays a primary role in coordinating the Federal response to WNS, worked with the USGS Fort Collins Science Center’s Web Applications Team to develop the White-nose Syndrome Disease Tracking System. Version 1.0 of this system, released for Beta testing in May 2011, addresses two critical objectives:

  • enable state-level resource managers to effectively manage WNS field and laboratory data, and
  • provide customizable map and data reports of surveillance findings. The WNS Disease Tracking System subsequently was demonstrated to resource managers involved in the WNS response, and system users are assisting with in-depth testing. Once resource-management users are all trained (autumn 2011), they will begin populating the system with surveillance data, much of which will be immediately available to the public.

WNS version 1.0 was released into production in November, 2011 and state points-of-contact are currently being trainined. New users are providing ciritical feedback for WNS version 2.0, which is currently being planned with Fish and Wildlife Region 5 and the National White-nose Syndrome Data Management Team.

Key System Components

  • Disease Tracking: Customizable disease tracking maps and data exports for all U.S. states and counties
  • Disease Reporting: Tissue sample database management for authorized resource managers as well as a publicly accessible database of disease reporting contacts for all U.S. States and Federal resource management agencies
  • Diagnostic Labs:  Directory of laboratories involved in white-nose syndrome diagnostic analyses
Publication Title: 

Summary and analysis of the U.S. government Bat Banding Program

Authors: 
Ellison, L.E
Publication Date: 
2008
Updated Date (text): 
2012-01-13
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2008/0132 FORT

Pub Abstract: 

This report summarizes the U.S. Government Bat Banding Program (BBP) from 1932 to 1972. More than 2 million bands were issued during the program, of which approximately 1.5 million bands were applied to 36 bat species by scientists in many locations in North America including the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Central America. Throughout the BBP, banders noticed numerous and deleterious effects on bats, leading to a moratorium on bat banding by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and a resolution to cease banding by the American Society of Mammalogists in 1973. One of the main points of the memorandum written to justify the moratorium was to conduct a "detailed evaluation of the files of the bat-banding program." However, a critical and detailed evaluation of the BBP was never completed. In an effort to satisfy this need, I compiled a detailed history of the BBP by examining the files and conducting a literature review on bat banding activities during the program. I also provided a case study in managing data and applying current mark-recapture theory to estimate survival using the information from a series of bat bands issued to Clyde M. Senger during the BBP. The majority of bands applied by Senger were to Townsend's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii), a species of special concern for many states within its geographic range. I developed a database management system for the bat banding records and then analyzed and modeled survival of hibernating Townsend's big-eared bats at three main locations in Washington State using Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open models and the modeling capabilities of Program MARK. This analysis of a select dataset in the BBP files provided relatively precise estimates of survival for wintering Townsend's big-eared bats. However, this dataset is unique due to its well-maintained and complete state and because there were high recapture rates over the course of banding; it is doubtful that other unpublished datasets of the same quality exist buried in the BBP files for further analyses. Lastly, I make several recommendations based on the findings of this summary and analysis, the most important of which is that marking bats with standard metal or split-ring forearm bands should not be considered for mark-recapture studies unless the information sought and the potential for obtaining unbiased estimates from that information vastly outweighs the potential negative effects to the bats.

Publication Title: 

An overview of contaminants and bats, with special reference to insecticides and the Indiana bat

Authors: 
O’Shea, T. J. and D. R. Clark, Jr
Publication Date: 
2002
Updated Date (text): 
2011-03-10
Parent Publication Title: 
The Indiana bat: biology and management of an endangered species
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2002/0090 FORT

Pub Abstract: 

Bats accumulate and suffer from adverse effects of environmental contaminants, and this raises concern about potential impacts on endangered species, such as the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalist). Organochlorine insecticides are persistent, lipophilic neurotoxins that have been implicated as agents of mortality in populations of other species of bat, including gray bats (Myotis grisescens) in Missouri. We provide previously unpublished data, obtained in 1975-1978, on organochlorines in carcasses and brains of 38 Indiana bats and guano from five roosts. These data provide the first evidence for mortality of Indiana bats due to insecticides of the organochlorine pesticide era and provide a benchmark for future studies…

Publication Title: 

DDT contamination at Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge

Authors: 
O’Shea, T.J., W.J. Fleming III, and E. Cromartie
Publication Date: 
1980
Updated Date (text): 
2008-05-14
Parent Publication Title: 
Science
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
1980/W107 WELUT
States: 

Pub Abstract: 
Publication Title: 

Monitoring trends in bat populations of the United States and territories: problems and prospects

Authors: 
O'Shea, T.J., and M.A. Bogan (eds.)
Publication Date: 
2003
Updated Date (text): 
2009-07-31
Parent Publication Title: 
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2003/0092 FORT

Pub Abstract: 

Bats are ecologically and economically important mammals. The life histories of bats (particularly their low
reproductive rates and the need for some species to gather in large aggregations at limited numbers of roosting sites) make their populations vulnerable to declines. Many of the species of bats in the United States (U.S.) and territories are categorized as endangered or threatened, have been candidates for such categories, or are considered species of concern. The importance and vulnerability of bat populations makes monitoring trends in their populations a goal for their future management. However, scientifically rigorous monitoring of bat populations requires well-planned, statistically defensible efforts. This volume reports
findings of an expert workshop held to examine the topic of monitoring populations of bats. The workshop participants included leading experts in sampling and analysis of wildlife populations, as well as experts in the biology and conservation of bats. Findings are reported in this volume under two sections. Part I of the report presents contributed papers that provide overviews of past and
current efforts at monitoring trends in populations of bats in the U.S. and territories. These papers consider current techniques and problems, and summarize what is known about the status and trends in populations of selected groups of bats. The contributed papers in Part I also include a description of the monitoring program developed for bat populations in the United Kingdom, a critique of monitoring programs in wildlife in general with recommendations for survey and sampling strategies, and a compilation
and analysis of existing data on trends in bats of the U.S. and territories. Efforts directed at monitoring bat populations are piecemeal and have shortcomings. In Part II of the report, the workshop participants provide critical analyses of these problems and develop recommendations for improving methods, defining objectives and priorities, gaining mandates, and enhancing information exchange to facilitate future efforts for monitoring trends in U.S. bat populations.

Publication Title: 

Monitoring trends in bat populations of the United States and territories: status of the science and recommendations for the future

Authors: 
O'Shea, T.J., M.A. Bogan, and L.E. Ellison
Publication Date: 
2003
Updated Date (text): 
2009-09-23
Parent Publication Title: 
Wildlife Society Bulletin
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
2003/0021 FORT

Pub Abstract: 

Populations of bats (Order Chiroptera) are difficult to monitor. However, current recognition of the importance of bats to biodiversity, their ecological and economic value as ecosystem components, and their vulnerability to declines makes monitoring trends in their populations a much-needed cornerstone for their future management. We report finding and recommendations for a recent expert workshop on monitoring trends in bat populations in the United States and territories…

Publication Title: 

Gray myotis (Myotis grisescens)

Authors: 
Bogan, M. A
Publication Date: 
1999
Updated Date (text): 
2004-03-29
Parent Publication Title: 
The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals
Publication Type: 
Archive number: 
1999/0076 MESC

Pub Abstract: 

North American Bat Data Integration

Code: 
EJ10EWN.31
Map of documented WNS disease distribution in North America.
By moving WNS disease data to the Bat Population Database researchers will be able to manage their WNS data more effectively.
Abstract: 

Bats are essential to the health of our natural world. They help control pests and are vital pollinators and seed-dispersers for countless plants. Bat populations are in trouble, however. Since 2006, more than 5 million bats have died due to a fungal disease called White-nose Syndrome (WNS). At the same time, several migratory tree-dwelling species are being killed in unprecedented numbers by wind turbines. In light of these emerging threats, the scientific community has expressed great interest in improving access to historical information and WNS data to better inform bat conservation efforts. To address this need, this project is integrating two important datasets into the USGS Bat Population Database, an enterprise data management system for bat researchers.

Integrate WNS diagnostic data into the BPD

WNS is an emerging disease of hibernating insectivorous bats in North America and causes extensive mortality of bats in eastern North America. A National Plan for assisting States, Federal agencies, and tribes in managing WNS was developed in 2011 and this plan identifies 7 working groups, including the Data and Technical Information Management Working Group.  The main goal of this plan is to “provide a database system that can be used by State, Federal, and tribal agencies, and serve as a central repository for nationwide analyses and specific projects.” To address this need we are migrating to the BPD WNS diagnostic laboratory data, which includes the historical data that is the foundation of the current understanding of the distribution and spread of WNS, as well as the fungus that causes the disease, Pseudogynmnoascus destructans. WNS diagnostic data is being made available to the BPD through a partnership between the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) diagnostic laboratory and the USGS Fort Collins Science Center (FORT). Using the Bat Population Database as the WNS data management platform will provide state-level WNS Point-of-Contacts with a secure, web-based application to manage and share the results of white-nose syndrome efforts in their state. 

Integrate the USGS Bat Banding Program card files into the BPD

The U.S. Government administered, coordinated, and maintained a national Bat Banding Program from 1932 to 1972. The files and documentation for this program are currently maintained by the USGS, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. More than 2 million bat bands were issued during the program.  Approximately 1.5 million bands were applied to 36 species of bats by scientists, their students, and colleagues in many locations in North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Central America. The banding information files currently exist in 90 drawers on 3”x5” index cards. There are also correspondence files (memoranda), gray literature, and anecdotal information on handwritten pieces of paper. In collaboration with Region 3 US Fish and Wildlife Service, FORT is developing a national clearinghouse for banded bats in order to optimize information obtained from marked animals. By including the historical Bat Banding Program files in this clearinghouse, the utility of the data repository will be vastly improved, allowing for the use of a valuable and currently inaccessible resource.

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